MASSQuito Coalition Resources

Advocating for effective, affordable, transparent, ecologically responsible, and scientifically-based mosquito disease management in Massachusetts.

In August 2020, Massachusetts passed emergency legislation S.2757, aimed at reducing the spread of mosquito-borne disease, and revamping the state’s approach to mosquito management. Although the bill contained several problematic provisions that continue to allow widespread use of toxic pesticides, they are set to expire in 2022. A 21st Century Mosquito Task Force, consisting of a range of stakeholders, was established to draft a new, more effective approach to mosquito management.

It is critical the Mosquito Task Force follow the best available science in crafting its new policy. The group has already begun meeting and has offered the public an opportunity to provide input. Your voice is needed to ensure meaningful changes that reduce mosquitoes and the diseases they carry, while ensuring protection of public health and the environment.

>>Take Action by urging the Massachusetts Mosquito Task Force to develop a science-based, ecological mosquito management program

Ecological mosquito management prioritizes preventative measures, and includes:

    • Monitoring and surveillance
    • A strong focus on public education and personal protective measures
    • Emphasis on eliminating breeding sites
    • Consideration of local ecology
    • A tiered approach to management:
      • Non-toxic approaches, such as habitat manipulation must be attempted first
      • Larvaciding should be conducted based on monitoring for predefined thresholds
      • Adulticiding (spraying for adult mosquitoes) should be permitted only during public health emergencies, when there is significant threat of mosquito-borne disease based on predefined thresholds, and all other, less toxic methods have been attempted and found ineffective

See our coalition fact sheet on the ecological mosquito disease bill for more talking points, here. 

Application of any mosquito adulticide should be the least toxic product available. The state’s current pesticide of choice, Anvil 10+10, is highly toxic not acceptable, given the availability of minimum risk and organic certified alternatives. Recently published reports in the Boston Globe indicate this product contains undisclosed PFAS ‘forever chemicals’ associated with a range of diseases. The unknowns associated with toxic, EPA registered pesticides underlines the need an approach that does not place these products at the top of the toolbox.

To protect health and the environment, no adulticide should ever be sprayed ‘on demand,’ based on nuisance mosquito populations. Likewise, aerial spraying is ineffective, places public health at unnecessary risk, and should not be permitted in a 21st century mosquito program. If science-based measures are followed, personal protective measures can address nuisance mosquitoes, and monitoring, surveillance, habitat manipulation and judicious use of larvicides will effectively protect the public from mosquito-borne diseases.

>>Send the message to Massachusetts 21st Century Mosquito Task Force that aerial pesticide use is unacceptable

In the event that pesticides are used under a clear public health emergency, is critical that the 21st Century Mosquito Task Force ensure that local communities and residents of the Commonwealth have full disclosure of all pesticide use – including so-called ‘inert’ ingredients and potential contaminants like PFAS, advance notice of any planned spraying, and universally available opt-out opportunities.

Business as usual cannot continue. Unrestricted spraying of toxic pesticides raises serious health concerns, especially during a pandemic, as the same toxic pesticides sprayed for mosquitoes are known to elevate risk factors to our immune and respiratory systems, which Covid-19 attacks.

>>Urge this Task Force to incorporate science-based practices into a 21st Century Mosquito policy for Massachusetts residents.

Stay tuned for more ways you can influence this important process.

Sample Language:

(Please remix as your able! There’s plenty of other great material on this website to draw from)

Dear Members of the 21st Century Mosquito Task Force,

As a resident of Massachusetts, I am deeply concerned about the use of toxic pesticides to manage mosquitoes, and urge this Task Force to develop a science-based, ecological mosquito management policy to submit to lawmakers next year.

Ecological mosquito management prioritizes preventative measures, and includes:

    • Monitoring and surveillance
    • A strong focus on public education and personal protective measures
    • Emphasis on eliminating breeding sites
    • Consideration of local ecology
    • A tiered approach to management:
      • Non-toxic approaches, such as habitat manipulation must be attempted first
      • Larvaciding should be conducted based on monitoring for predefined thresholds
      • Adulticiding (spraying for adult mosquitoes) should be permitted only during public health emergencies, when there is significant threat of mosquito-borne disease based on predefined thresholds, and all other, less toxic methods have been attempted and found ineffective

Application of any mosquito adulticide should be the least toxic product available. The state’s current pesticide of choice, Anvil 10+10, is highly toxic and not acceptable, given the availability of minimum risk and organic certified alternatives. Recently published reports in the Boston Globe indicate this product contains undisclosed PFAS ‘forever chemicals’ associated with a range of diseases. The unknowns associated with toxic, EPA registered pesticides underline the need for an approach that does not place these products at the top of the toolbox.

To protect health and the environment, no adulticide should ever be sprayed ‘on demand,’ based on nuisance mosquito populations. Likewise, aerial spraying is ineffective, places public health at unnecessary risk, and should not be permitted in a 21st century mosquito program. If science-based measures are followed, personal protective measures can address nuisance mosquitoes, and monitoring, surveillance, habitat manipulation and judicious use of larvicides will effectively protect the public from mosquito-borne diseases.

In the event that pesticides are used under a clear public health emergency, it is critical that the 21st Century Mosquito Task Force ensure that local communities and residents of the Commonwealth have full disclosure of all pesticide use – including so-called ‘inert’ ingredients and potential contaminants like PFAS, advance notice of any planned spraying, and universally available opt-out opportunities.

Business as usual cannot continue. Unrestricted spraying of toxic pesticides raises serious health concerns, especially during a pandemic, as the same toxic pesticides sprayed for mosquitoes are known to elevate risk factors to our immune and respiratory systems, which Covid-19 attacks.

I urge this Task Force to incorporate these suggestions into the development of a 21st century mosquito policy for Massachusetts residents. Please seek out and consult with experts already enacting many of these measures, such as in Madison, WI; Boulder, CO; and Washington, DC. We have a chance to be a model for states throughout the country – residents like myself will be watching closely to ensure this opportunity is not missed.

When one thinks of summertime in New England, thoughts turn to beaches, barbecues, mountains, and, unfortunately, mosquitoes.

Mass Audubon’s Position on Mosquito Control

Mass Audubon supports a scientifically based mosquito-borne disease management program to protect public health while minimizing environmental and public health risks associated with some forms of mosquito control. Learn More

A Call for Mosquito Reform

The current system is flawed. In order to more effectively protect the public health and environment, we urge that communities consider this option and the other recommendations outlined below as they prepare for town meeting votes. Learn More

Frequently Asked Questions

Mass Audubon receives many inquiries about mosquitoes and mosquito control practices. We provide answers to the most common questions on mosquitoes, their associated health risk, control methods, and environmental impacts of mosquito control activities. Learn More

This proposed legislation (S.556/H.937) in the 2021-22 state legislative session, (click bill numbers to see current sponsors), filed by Rep. Tami Gouveia, Sen. Adam Hinds, replaces the Commonwealth’s outdated and expensive mosquito management system with one that is more effective, affordable, transparent, ecologically responsible, and scientifically based.

See the coalition fact sheet on this bill, here.

Contact your state legislators in support of:

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE PUBLIC HEALTH BY ESTABLISHING AN ECOLOGICALLY BASED MOSQUITO MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN THE COMMONWEALTH (S.556/H.937)

This bill:

1. Creates a Mosquito Management Office within the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs.

2. Creates a Mosquito Management Board within that new office, replacing the existing state Mosquito Control and Reclamation Board. The bill changes the composition of the Board to prioritize public health and the environment.

3. Charges the Board with creating a state mosquito management plan, with detailed instructions on what should be included in the plan. The state plan must adopt a tiered approach to management based on quantifiable thresholds for action. It prioritizes education, monitoring, and habitat modification; requires thresholds for larviciding and adulticiding; allows pesticide use only for disease control; and prohibits aerial application of larvicides or adulticides.

4. Preserves the existing mosquito control districts and allows new ones to be formed, but requires districts to either adopt the state management plan or modify the plan, subject to approval by the Board. In this way, district plans must still follow the ecological approach of the state plan.

5. Makes districts responsible for all mosquito management monitoring and control within participating municipalities. Makes the Board responsible for mosquito monitoring and management in areas of the commonwealth that are not within a mosquito control district.

6. Empowers municipalities to choose from a “menu” of mosquito management services, ranging from public education up to adulticiding. Municipalities only pay for the services they choose, in contrast to the existing onesize-fits-all system in which municipalities pay the full cost of being in a district even if they don’t want certain services, like adulticiding.

7. Requires 72 hour notice before adulticiding, and allows residents to opt out of spraying. Beekeepers and organic farmers are opted-out by default.

8. Establishes quantifiable conditions for declaring an arbovirus public health emergency and puts responsibility for responding to the emergency with the department of public health. Aerial spraying is still prohibited during a state of emergency.

9. Bans pesticides containing PFAS from being used in mosquito control activities.

10. Requires transparent record keeping of Board and district activities.

Read: NOFA Mass- Governor Signs Mosquito Control Law Creates Task Force

See details on previous and upcoming meetings, here.

Members of the public are strongly encouraged to attend.

Mosquito season comes back with the warmth, and even though spraying of pesticides to control adult mosquitoes is the least effective and most environmentally damaging method to control mosquito diseases, we’re about to be blanketed with toxic pesticides… If you want to reduce your families and your local ecosystem’s exposure to these toxins, there is an option to “opt-out” from spraying carried out by the Commonwealth. However, there are also some important caveats…

Anyone in Massachusetts can request to be excluded from wide area applications of pesticides through the Dept. of Agriculture (renters must have the permission of their landlord). When someone fills out the form found on the below page, it goes directly to the mosquito control project that services that town and that property will be excluded.

*How to request exclusion from wide area pesticide applications: http://www.mass.gov/how-to/how-to-request-exclusion-from-wide-area-pesticide-applications

IMPORTANT NOTE: Exclusion requests must be filed EACH CALENDAR YEAR.

Note also that excluded properties should be marked with signage saying “No Spray” as outlined on the above-linked page.

HOWEVER (BIG ONE)… when a public health hazard is declared by the Department of Public Health (which is very likely to happen) and emergency spraying needs to take place,  those exclusions are not honored during the time that is set forth in the DPH declaration, unless the property is a certified organic farm.

If someone has filled out this form, they should be notified if/when spraying occurs (so at least people can take some precautions)…

About organic farms:

The Department reaches out to the certified organic farms at the beginning of the season to gather information relative to their location so that if an emergency application does take place they have their information to include in their mapping. *If someone is in the process of being certified organic with Bay State Organic or another certifier, they are also eligible to be excluded from wide area pesticide applications, even under emergency declaration.* Those who are in the process of becoming certified or were recently certified should fill out the exclusion form and contact MDAR directly to confirm that they will be excluded as an organic operation.

*How to request exclusion from wide area pesticide applications: http://www.mass.gov/how-to/how-to-request-exclusion-from-wide-area-pest…

Please see the state’s “FAQ” on Exclusions from Wide Area Pesticide Applications, here:

http://www.mass.gov/doc/exclusions-from-pesticide-applications-faq/download

Important: If/when you “opt-out” for your property, be sure to also notify your local town/city officials (ie. Conservation Commission, Board of Selectman, Town/City Council, Board of Health, Mayor, etc) and let them know why. The more residents they hear from about opting out, the more likely they will support an alternative municipal mosquito disease management strategy.

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The blanket spraying of synthetic pesticides is a threat to the integrity of insect biodiversity and ecosystem health that our farms and gardens rely upon. It also raises serious health concerns, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. These chemicals are known to elevate risk factors to our immune and respiratory systems. Not only that, but even even according to the national Centers for Disease Control and US Environmental Protection Agency, spraying of pesticides to control adult mosquitoes is the least effective, and most environmentally damaging method to control mosquito diseases.

Did you know?

*Products containing synthetic pyrethroids are not natural, they are synthetic chemical formulations that also contain other or “inert” ingredients. Neither Massachusetts agencies nor the Environmental Protection Agency test the health or environmental impacts of mixtures of active and inert chemical ingredients.

*Sumithrin, a pesticide often used to control mosquitoes, can result in lung irritation, and has been documented to cause asthmatic responses in those exposed.

*Piperonyl-butoxide, a synergist intended to magnify the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids, has not been tested in combination with these active ingredients, and is considered a possible human carcinogen by the EPA.

*Did you hear?! Our coalition partners at PEER recently exposed the fact that the pesticide the state uses in its mosquito spraying program has been found to contain PFAS, a group of highly toxic chemicals…

(references for the above three points, respectively):

Donley, Nathan. 2016. Toxic Concoctions: How the EPA Ignores Dangers of Pesticide Cocktails. Center for Biological Diversity. http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/pesticides_reduction/pdfs/…

National Pesticide Information Center. 2020. Sumithrin. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/dphentech.html#references

EPA. 2018. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. http://npic.orst.edu/chemicals_evaluated.pdf

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“an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of toxins!”

Mosquito Prevention Tip #1: Seek out and drain all standing water on your property at least once a week to interrupt breeding cycles.

For more ways to control mosquitoes in a proactive and ecological way, please see this blog post from the Xerces Society: http://www.xerces.org/blog/managing-mosquitos-common-sense-solutions

More resources for Opting Out

Central Massachusetts Mosquito Pesticide Spray Exclusion

https://www.cmmcp.org/pesticide-information/pages/pesticide-exclusion

Five Steps to Stop the Spraying

https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/mosquito/documents/Stopthespraying.pdf

Safer Mosquito Management

https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/mosquitos-and-insect-borne-diseases/tools-for-change

When Residents Say No To Aerial Mosquito Spraying

https://undark.org/2019/10/25/when-residents-say-no-to-aerial-mosquito-spraying/

Opting Out of Toxic Mosquito Spraying

https://www.sierraclub.org/massachusetts/blog/2020/08/opting-out-toxic-mosquito-spraying

Application for Municipality Opt-Out of SRMCB Spraying (Mass.gov)

“Overview of process by which municipalities can submit an alternative mosquito management plan, required for a municipality to opt-out of spraying conducted by the State Reclamation and Mosquito Control Board.”
DEADLINE – May 15, 2021!… 
Members of the MASSQuito coalition have developed model alternative mosquito management plans:
Note:

The only section of the EEA form for a community opt-out that is labeled “required” is the education and public outreach section.  Since this is the first year of this new process, we do not know whether EEA will approve plans that only include that section, but since time is so short and it is difficult for small communities to meet the May 15th deadline, you could consider just focusing on that section.  https://www.mass.gov/info-details/application-for-municipality-opt-out-of-srmcb-spraying

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health has extensive public outreach and educational materials on their website, including pamplets, posters, and short videos (which could be used on local cable).  So the community does not need to create the educational materials, they could just say they will utilize these materials and get the word out to residents in a variety of ways as described in the attached sample plans (Section 5).

https://www.mass.gov/info-details/mosquito-borne-disease-prevention

Resources Supporting the Need for a Science-Based Community Mosquito Management Policy

(last updated: 4/21/21)

Abating mosquito-borne disease is best achieved through a science-based approach that prioritizes preventative measures. These measures include surveillance, monitoring, public education on eliminating breeding sites and personal protective actions, consideration of local ecology, habitat manipulation, larviciding with biological materials, full disclosure of all pesticide use, advance notice of spraying, and opt-out opportunities. Mosquito adulticides are hazardous chemicals that should be given strong consideration as to their need and effectiveness before any use occurs. Aerially applied mosquito adulticides are excessively risky in exposures to people and nontarget organisms, are relatively ineffective in relation to those risks, and should be completely prohibited. The following resources can be used to support the need for a policy that achieves the above purpose statement.

Hazards and Ineffectiveness of Mosquito Adulticides

Fact sheets and resources – Beyond Pesticides

Scientific Studies

Importance of a Science-Based Ecological Approach

Management Strategies – Beyond Pesticides

Examples From Other Communities

Current West Nile Virus and EEE activity and Risk Maps in Massachusetts (June-Oct.)

https://www.mass.gov/info-details/massachusetts-arbovirus-update

Arbovirus Surveillance Plan and Historical Data

https://www.mass.gov/lists/arbovirus-surveillance-plan-and-historical-data

Mosquito Control Projects and Districts in Massachusetts

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/mosquito-control-projects-and-districts

Massachusetts Mosquito Control Projects and Districts

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/mosquito-control-projects-and-districts

Massachusetts Mosquito Control and Spraying

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/mosquito-control-and-spraying

Anvil 10+10 pesticide safety data sheet

https://www.clarke.com/filebin/productpdf/anvil1010-msds.pdf

Massachusetts Aerial Mosquito Spray Map

https://massnrc.org/spray-map/Region/List

Mass. Aerial Mosquito Spray comment/complaint link

https://massnrc.org/spray-map/contact-us

Central Mass. Mosquito Pesticide Spray Exclusion

https://www.cmmcp.org/pesticide-information/pages/pesticide-exclusion

Per the EPA, “Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals. PFAS have been manufactured and used in a variety of industries around the globe, including in the United States since the 1940s. PFOA and PFOS have been the most extensively produced and studied of these chemicals. Both chemicals are very persistent in the environment and in the human body – meaning they don’t break down and they can accumulate over time. There is evidence that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse human health effects.” https://www.epa.gov/pfas/basic-information-pfas

Boston Globe- EPA Finds Toxic Compounds In Mosquito Spray https://www.bostonglobe.com/2021/01/15/metro/epa-finds-toxic-compounds-mosquito-spray-used-mass-maker-will-change-packaging/

Boston Globe- Toxic Forever Chemicals Found Pesticides Used Millions Mass Acres When Spraying Mosquitos

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/12/01/metro/toxic-forever-chemicals-found-pesticide-used-millions-mass-acres-when-spraying-mosquitos/

Senator Jo Comerford A Wake Up Call for All Of Us: PFAS In Mosquito Spray

https://senatorjocomerford.org/a-wake-up-call-for-all-of-us-pfas-in-mosquito-spray/

Persistent Pollutants: PFAS Found in Mosquito Spray https://cen.acs.org/environment/persistent-pollutants/PFAS-found-mosquito-spray-used/98/i47

Aerially Sprayed Pesticide Contains PFAS

https://www.peer.org/aerially-sprayed-pesticide-contains-pfas/

Children’s Health Defense-Mosquito Control Pesticides Contain Cancer Causing PFAS Chemicals

https://childrenshealthdefense.org/defender/mosquito-control-pesticides-contain-cancer-causing-pfas-chemicals/

Ecowatch.com- PFAS in Aerial Pesticides

https://www.ecowatch.com/pfas-aerial-pesticides-2649108690.html

EENEWS

https://www.eenews.net/stories/1063726787

Beyond Pesticides- Health Effects of Mosquito Control Pesticides

https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/mosquito/documents/citizensHealthEffectsMosqP.pdf

Beyond Pesticides- Mosquitos and Insect Borne Diseases: An Overview

https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/mosquitos-and-insect-borne-diseases/overview

Mosquito Borne Disease Prevention

https://www.mass.gov/info-details/mosquito-borne-disease-prevention

Personal Protection Measures Against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26900115/

Ten Natural Ingredients That Repel Mosquitos

https://www.healthline.com/health/kinds-of-natural-mosquito-repellant

What Are The Best Natural Mosquito Repellents?

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325337

Natural Mosquito Repellents That Work (Plus Plants That Repel Mosquitoes)

https://commonsensehome.com/natural-mosquito-repellents/

Consumer Reports Evaluates Natural Insect Repellents

https://www.consumerreports.org/insect-repellent/do-natural-insect-repellents-work/

Protect Yourself From Mosquitos

https://www.columbus.gov/publichealth/programs/Animal—Insects/Protect-Yourself-From-Mosquitoes/

Living With Mosquitoes

https://bouldercolorado.gov/ipm/living-with-mosquitoes

Mosquitoes and Insect Borne Diseases-An Overview

https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/mosquitos-and-insect-borne-diseases/overview

Mosquito Control Around Homes and In Communities

https://entomology.ces.ncsu.edu/mosquito-control-around-homes-and-in-communities/

Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Target and Nontarget Organisms: A Review of Laboratory and Field Experiments

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248963381_Effects_of_Bacillus_thuringiensis_var_israelensis_on_Target_and_Nontarget_Organisms_A_Review_of_Laboratory_and_Field_Experiments

Indirect effects of bioinsecticides on the nontarget fauna: The Camargue experiment calls for future research

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1146609X11001792

Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds

https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01821.x

2020 American Eel Mosquito Control Highlights (VIDEO)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpPpBwZ_s8A&t=2s

American Eels and Mosquito Control: A Holistic Solution to a Global Problem (VIDEO)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2MBn7JTIlo

Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198200/

Penn State University-Mosquito Biology and Control

https://extension.psu.edu/mosquito-biology-and-control

Rutgers University- Mosquito biology

http://vectorbio.rutgers.edu/outreach/moslife.php

Biological Control Initiative for Mosquitos-Harris County, Texas

https://www.hcp4.net/bci/

Mosquito Control To Prevent Malaria

https://www.malariasite.com/mosquito-control/

Impact of Advocacy

https://www.massaudubon.org/our-conservation-work/advocacy/impact-of-advocacy

Why Monitor Amphibians?

https://www.massaudubon.org/our-conservation-work/wildlife-research-conservation/sanctuary-based-inventory-monitoring/amphibians/why-monitor-amphibians

An Ode to Odonates

https://www.massaudubon.org/news-events/publications/explore/past-issues/summer-2018/an-ode-to-odonates

About Salamanders

https://www.massaudubon.org/learn/nature-wildlife/reptiles-amphibians/salamanders/about

About Bats

https://www.massaudubon.org/learn/nature-wildlife/mammals/bats/about

What Eats Mosquitoes?

https://sciencing.com/eats-mosquitoes-8568515.html

from UNH Extension

Public Health entomologists view “source reduction” as a significant tool in reducing risk from mosquito-spread diseases. This means limiting breeding opportunities for mosquitoes, especially for those species that pose a public health risk. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in or at the edge of water. Reducing the number of rainwater-holding containers around buildings (poorly adjusted gutters, bird baths, old tires, and other containers) can help reduce the risk from West Nile Virus and other mosquito-borne diseases. Theoretically, it could help for Zika virus vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti). Neither species is known to occur in New Hampshire, but the NH Division of Public Health Services is working with mosquito control professionals in New Hampshire to establish surveillance specifically for these species. Source reduction is not a very effective tool for managing Eastern Equine Encephalitis, since very few mosquitoes that spread EEE breed in containers. Of course, source reduction can significantly reduce the annoyance of mosquito biting.

Old tires left outdoors create ideal breeding sites for mosquitoes. Whatever position you leave them in… vertical, horizontal, at a slant… they catch rainwater. Putting them under cover eliminates that threat. Old tires are often used to hold down the ag plastic that covers feed bunker silos on dairy farms. One relatively easy way to reduce the mosquito risk is to cut or drill holes in the tire sidewalls. That’s somewhat easy for some tires, and difficult for others that have steel mesh inside. At the UNH Fairchild Dairy Teaching & Research Center, they buy tire sidewalls that already have holes cut in them. One advantage of them is that they stack very easily, compared to whole tires.

>> Read more about Reducing Mosquito Breeding Sites When Using Tires as Anchors for Silo Covers, here.

Old discarded plastic tarps and sheeting can also provide spots for water to pool in. I was surprised to find it happened in the plastic covering one of my wood piles. For my wood pile, I corrected this by laying plywood under the plastic (so it didn’t sag) and slanting it. Other solutions include putting the discarded plastic under cover, or taking it to the recycling center.

Plugged gutters on buildings are a common mosquito breeding site. Cleaning the gutter and/or adjusting the pitch allows proper drainage. Standing water with dead leaves or grass in it is highly attractive to egg-laying mosquitoes.

Piles of junked containers are prime spots for container-breeding mosquitoes. Solutions: remove the junk, or put the piles under cover or in storage, so rainwater doesn’t reach them.

Rain Barrels: Do you collect rainwater for your garden? That practice could generate lots of mosquitoes. Theoretically you could completely net the container, to keep any emerging mosquitoes from getting out (or to keep females from laying eggs). Depending on your setup, this might be pretty hard to do, and it can interfere with draining the water, if you don’t have a hose. Another alternative is to be sure that you completely empty the container(s) each week, before mosquito larvae can complete their development. That might be logistically difficult. Some garden centers sell mosquito “dunks” or “bits” which are designed to put a mosquito-pathogenic bacterium in the water. They can work, and can be used in containers (tires, unused pools, bird baths, rain barrels for the garden…) without a permit.

Manure lagoons: these can host lots of Eristalis flies (rat-tailed maggots), and some species of Culex mosquitoes. The Culex species in New Hampshire (like Culex pipiens, the rain barrel mosquito) bite birds, and very rarely bite mammals.

Water gardens: An outdoor water garden features one or more large containers into which you place aquatic plants. If there are no fish in them, they could create opportunities for mosquitoes to breed. Introducing fish into them can significantly reduce that risk. Most water gardens would not meet the state definition of “surface waters”, so you would not need a permit to use mosquito “dunks”.

Irrigation ponds and marshes:  Yes, these are breeding sites for many species of mosquitoes, but we can’t do a lot about that. Theoretically we could treat them with insecticides or liquids that float to the surface and create a layer that prevents mosquito larvae from breathing. But, applying any pesticide to surface waters (there is a state regulatory definition for that) requires a permit from the NH Division of Pesticide Control, which can be a very long process.

Bird Bath: Dump the contents weekly, and clean the bird bath out. If you keep cleaning at this interval, mosquito larvae cannot mature to the adult stage, and they die when you dump them out onto the ground. If cleaning it out weekly is too much fuss for you, you can apply mosquito “bits” or “dunks” (biological insecticides based on the mosquito pathogen B.t.i.).

(re-posted from Jones River Watershed Association)

Although we all hate mosquitoes – their nasty biting and ability to transmit serious disease – we must consider the best, eco-friendly and people-friendly methods of control. Below are some steps we use, in addition to requesting exclusion from wide-area pesticides application by the state of Massachusetts.

DUMP OUT STAGNANT WATER

You’ll be amazed at how many aggravating insects are reduced by the simple act of yard policing. Monitor bird baths, forgotten buckets, little puddles, clogged gutters, and other out-of-the-way breeding areas provided by we, the people.

FISH FRIENDS

© Duane Raver/dnr.sc.gov

For larger areas in your control that can’t simply be dumped out, such as a fish pond: add more fish! They love to eat mosquito larvae, and can’t get enough of them.

The American eels’ population needs our help to restore – baby eels can out-compete any fish in our rivers and streams to control mosquito larvae numbers!

BTI DUNKS

If not fish, BTI (bacillus thuringiensis, strain israelensis) Mosquito Dunks” or “Mosquito Bits” are used to specifically target and kill off mosquito larvae when inserted into standing water.

However, it is not without impacts as it may also affect dragonfly populations. Dragonfly nymphs, or naiads, feed on mosquito larvae, while adult dragonflies feed on adult mosquitoes.

GARLIC SPRAY

If you live near woods or wetlands like we do, one of our favorite and effective products is “Mosquito Barrier,” a garlic spray applied throughout your yard.

Pine goes out every couple of weeks at dusk with a backpack sprayer, making the yard smell like garlic and drastically reducing the troublesome mosquitoes.

RED CEDAR SPRAY

Red cedar spray is another very effective product for collapsing the mosquito and tick population; sprayed throughout the yard once a month or so in the warm seasons, preferably before rain.

Red cedar oil is relatively expensive, but well worth it – the red cedar oil from Texas is the greatest!

BUG REPELLENT

Wear bug repellent when outdoors. This protects you and saves the environment from unwitting errors.

https://www.massriversalliance.org/laws-and-regs

NOFA/Mass https://www.nofamass.org/

Community Action Works https://communityactionworks.org/about-us/

Beyond Pesticides https://www.beyondpesticides.org/

Conservation Law Foundation https://www.clf.org/

EcoHealth Advocates https://www.facebook.com/ecohealthadvocates

Ipswich River Watershed https://www.ipswichriver.org/about-us/

Jones River Watershed https://jonesriver.org/jrwa/

LEAD for Pollinators https://leadforpollinators.org/

Mass. Association Of Conservation Commissions https://www.maccweb.org/page/AboutUs

Mass Audubon https://www.massaudubon.org/

Massachusetts Beekeepers Association https://www.massbee.org/

Mass Rivers Alliance https://www.massriversalliance.org/

OARS https://www.oars3rivers.org/about

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) https://www.peer.org/

Regeneration Massachusetts https://www.facebook.com/marighttoknowgmos/

Sierra Club-Massachusetts https://www.sierraclub.org/massachusetts

The Mosquito Control for the Twenty-First Century Task Force accepts written comments from the public: Submit a Comment

Which communities are opting out of aerial spraying?

To the best knowledge of the coalition (last updated 7/06/21), here is the outcome of municipal opt-out decisions by local governments. Please note that at this time, none of the alternative plans submitted have been approved or rejected by the state.

Montague has gone through the entire process (Board of Health (BoH) and Selectboard) – both voted unanimously to opt out. On Monday, May 3, 2021, BoH Director Daniel Wasiuk will present precisely what he plans to submit. They’ve also scheduled  a meeting for May 10, 2021 in case they need to make revisions.

Wendell voted to opt out April 14, 2021.

Ashby voted on April 28, 2021 to opt out.

Gloucester passed the BoH, Selectboard hearing is May 11, 2021.

Uxbridge is bringing it to the Selectboard on Monday, May 3, 2021 for a vote. (It appears that Uxbridge is putting out a RFP for services: https://www.uxbridge-ma.gov/sites/g/files/vyhlif3971/f/uploads/ifb_mosquito_control_20april20212.pdf)

Pepperell’s Selectboard voted to opt out on 5/10/21

Harvard Board of Selectmen just voted to opt out!

Plainfield submitted their paperwork just before the May 28th deadline

BucklandWhatleyLincolnNorthfieldShelburneBucklandColrainCharlemontHawley, and Gill have all begun the process at the town level.

Halifax voted on April 27, 2021 NOT to opt out. (We learned from a local advocate that this was because: 1) No one spoke in favor of opting out. 2) The Board heard about local residents who were impacted by EEE and felt that the dangers from mosquitoes and the diseases that they carry were enough of a concern to be more important than any potential downside from the program.)

On 5/14/21 we learned that the following communities are also attempting to Opt Out: New Salem, Wendell, Westhampton, and Williamsburg